The reverse types of coins contain all sorts of messages. Gods, propoganda, news etc. Use ctrl + f on this page to search reverses for your coins.


A A A F F --- Men devoted to the art of striking and casting gold, silver, and bronze.

ABVNDANTIA --- The embodiment of abundance. Symbols: cornucopia, stalks of grain.

ADSERTOR LIBERTAS --- Champion of Liberty.

ADLOCVTO --- An address given by the emperor to his army or Praetorian Guard on a significant occasion, such as the start of a military campaign.

ADVENTVS, ADVENT --- Arrival. Commemorates the return or arrival of an emperor.

ADVENTVI AVG FELICISSIMO --- Congratulations from the Roman people on the emperor's return.

AEDIS, AED --- Temple or shrine.

AEGYPTOS --- The personification of Egypt.

AEQVITAS, AEQVIT --- The embodiment of equity. Symbols: cornucopia, balance scales, scepter.

AETERNAE, AETERNITAS, AETERN, AETERNITATIA --- The embodiment of stability derived from the concept of eternity. Symbols: globe, phoenix, torch, scepter; sometimes depicted holding the heads of the sun and moon.



AETERNAE MEMORIAE --- Eternal remembrance.

AFRICA --- The personification of the North African Provinces (modern-day Libya and Tunisia).

ALAMANNIA --- The personification of the Germanic tribe, the Alans.

AMOR --- Love.

ANCILE --- One of twelve sacred shields that descended from the heavens. These shields were struck to awaken Mars when war was declared.

ANNONA --- The goddess of the wheat harvest and overseer of grain imports from Africa. Symbols: stalks of grain, prow modius, cornucopia.

ANNONA AVGVSTI --- Provisions from the emperor.

ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES --- Provisions from the majestic Ceres, the Hellenistic goddess of grain.

APOLLO, APOL, APOLLONI --- The Hellenistic sun god; also the patron of arts and prophecy. Symbols: long hair, naked, lyre, bow and arrow (APOLLONI SANCTO, Holy Apollo).

AR AD --- Arabia Adiabenius.

ARA PACIS --- The Altar of Peace.

ARMENIA --- a country north of Persia.

ASIA --- The personification of the province of Asia or modern Turkey.

AVG, AVGG, AVGGG; AVGVSTI, AVGVSTO or AVGVSTVS --- The title "Augustus," usually abbreviated, often appears on reverse inscriptions when referring to an attribute of an emperor. An emperor's official title is AVGVSTVS (masculine); or AVGVSTA (feminine). If the inscription is dedicated to the emperor or relates to an honor bestowed upon the emperor, it would take the form AVGVSTO (to Augustus; or plural AVGVSTIS). When the title is used with a personalized attribute like glory, it would take the form GLORIA AVGVSTI (glory of the emperor). During the Imperial era, especially under the tetrarchy, the plural genitive form AVGVSTORVM (of the emperors) is encountered. In abbreviated forms, the last "G" is repeated to refer to the other legitimate rulers bearing the title of Augustus simultaneously. Each "G" represents one of the emperors. (For example, AVGG on a Trajan Decius coin would refer to Trajan Decius as the first "G" and Herennius Etruscus, his son, as the second "G").


BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, BEATA TRANQLITAS --- "Blessed calm". Refers to the stability under the rule of Constantine I.

BIGA --- Chariot with two beasts.

BONI, BONVS, BONA, BONO --- Good, noble, kind, honest.

BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS --- The good genius of the emperor.

BONVS EVENTVS --- An Italic god of agriculture. and later used as a personification of good news. Depicted pouring libations from patera over an altar, and holding a cornucopia.

BRITANNIA --- The personification of the British Province. Depicted as a female sitting on a rock, holding a spear and resting arm on shield. Antoninus Pius issued a set of bronze sestertius coins in Rome to be circulated in Britian.


CAESAR --- A title bestowed upon a designated heir or co-emperor. It originated with Julius Caesar and was later used as a title for the emperors. The abbreviation CAES is commonly seen on coins.

CAESAREA --- The personification of the city of Caesarea in Cappadocia.

CAESARVM NOSTRORVM --- "Our Caesars." Refers to the emperors or co-emperors.

CALCATOR --- "Trampler." Represents the emperor as a conqueror or subjugator.

CLEMENTIA --- The embodiment of clemency or mercy. Symbols: scepter, patera.

CLYPEUS VIRTUTIS --- "Shield of Virtue." Represents the protective power of virtue.

COLONIA --- Represents a colony, a settlement established by Roman citizens outside of Italy.

COMES --- "Companion." Refers to an individual of high rank and close association with the emperor.

CONCORDIA --- The personification of harmony or unity. Symbols: patera, cornucopia, and scepter.

CONCORDIA AVGG --- "Harmony of the Emperors." Represents the unity between co-emperors or the harmonious rule of multiple emperors.

CONSUL --- The highest elected office in the Roman Republic. Emperors often held the title of consul.


Hadrian with COS

Hadrian COS III

Abbreviations for the title of consul. The number following "COS" indicates the number of times the emperor held the office.

COS DES II VI --- "Consul for the Second Time and for the Sixth Time as Designated." Refers to an emperor who served as consul multiple times.

CVR FIDEI --- "Protector of the Faith." Represents the emperor as the defender of the Roman religion.


DACIA --- The personification of the Roman province of Dacia, corresponding to modern-day Romania.

DAC CAP - Signifying the conquest of Dacia

DIANA --- The Roman goddess of the hunt, associated with the moon and wild animals. Symbols: bow and arrow, crescent moon.

DIVA --- "Divine" or "Goddess." Used to refer to deified empresses or deceased female members of the imperial family.

DIVVS --- "Divine." Used to refer to deified emperors or deceased male members of the imperial family.

DOMINORVM NOSTRORVM --- "Our Masters." Refers to the emperors or rulers.

DOMINVS NOSTER --- "Our Lord." Represents the emperor as the supreme ruler.

DVX --- "Leader" or "Guide." Refers to the emperor as the leader of the Roman army.


EQVESTER ORDO PRINCIPI IVVENT --- Refers to the equestrian order and the Princeps Ivventvtis (Prince of Youth), indicating the emperor's association with the equestrian class.

EQVITVM, EQVIT --- "Of the Cavalry." Refers to the cavalry forces of the Roman military.

EVENTVS --- Refers to an incident or occurrence.

EXERCITVS --- Represents the Roman Army and Infantry. It was a common reverse type under military dictators in the fourth century.

EXPED --- Indicates an emperor's visit to a specific area or province.

EX S C --- Abbreviation for "Ex Senato Consulto," meaning "By Senatorial Decree." Often used to indicate an honor awarded to the emperor by the Senate.

EX S C OB CIVES SERVATOS --- Refers to a decree of the Senate bestowed for saving the lives of citizens.


FECVNDITAS --- The personification of fertility and associated with the bearing of Imperial heirs. Often depicted with children. For example, FECVND AVGUSTAE represents the fertility of the empress.

FEL TEMP REPARATIO --- "The Restoration of Happy Times." A major theme in the late Constantinian dynasty's reformed billon and bronze coinage. Some reverse types include the phoenix, a barbarian dragging a young captive from a hut, or a Roman soldier spearing a fallen horseman (Persian cavalry).

FELICITAS, FEL, FELIC, FELICISSIMO --- The personification of happiness and success. Attributes associated with Felicitas include the caduceus, scepter, and sometimes leaning on a column.

FELIX --- "Lucky" or "fortunate," sometimes associated with wisdom. Also used as a title for Venus. For example, FELIX ADVENT AVGG N N represents the happy arrival of both emperors.

FIDEI PVBLICAE --- Refers to the faithfulness of the officials.

FIDES --- The personification of faithful protection or the fulfillment of duties.

FIDES PVBLICA --- Represents the promise of public protection.

FIDES EXERCITVS, FIDES MILITVM --- The personification of the faithfulness of the Army or Militia. Fides is often depicted holding military symbols of authority, such as two standards or a scepter.

FISCI --- Refers to a money-bag or purse.

FISCI IVDAICI CALVMNIA SVBLATA --- Refers to the remission of taxes imposed on the Jews by Nerva to fund the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

FOLLIS --- A leather bag used to hold money.

FORT RED --- "Fortunate Return of Our Emperor."

FORTI FORTVNAE --- A dedication to the brave man of Fortune.

FORTVNA --- The personification of luck and fate, often accorded cult status as a minor deity by some Romans. Emperors often used the type of Fortuna to imply that they served as intermediaries between fate and the Empire. Attributes associated with Fortuna include the cornucopia, olive branch, patera, rudder, or a wheel.

FORTVNA REDUX, FORT RED --- "Fortuna, Who Leads One Back." This type commemorates the vows made by an emperor prior to departing on a hazardous journey and their safe return.

FRVGIFERO, FRVGIFE, FRVGIFER, FRVGIS, FRVG --- Refers to fruitfulness or fertility.

FRVMENTO --- Refers to grain or crops.

FVNDATOR --- "The Founder."


GALLIA --- The personification of the Gallic provinces, including Gaul, France, Switzerland, and Northern Italy.

GAVDIUM POPVLI ROMANI --- "Delight of the Roman Public." Represents the joy or happiness of the Roman people.

GENETRICI, GENETRIX --- Refers to the mother or ancestress. Used in the context of VENERI GENETRICI, meaning "Mother Venus."

GENIO ANTIOCHENI --- A dedication to the Genius of Antioch, the guardian spirit associated with the city of Antioch.

GENIO AVGVSTI --- A dedication to the Genius of the emperors, symbolizing the protective spirit watching over the emperor and his family.

GENIO POP ROMANI --- A dedication to the Genius of the Roman Public. Commemorates the spirit of Rome and the unique character of the Roman people.

GENIO SENATVS --- A dedication to the Genius of the Senate, representing the protective spirit associated with the Senate.

GENITALIBVS --- Refers to birth or creation.

GENIVS, GEN --- The personification of the guardian spirit.

GERMANIA --- The personification of Germany.

GLORIA EXERCITVS --- "Glory of the Army." A common type reverse that symbolizes the glory associated with the Roman Army.

GLORIA NOVI SAECVLI --- "The Glory of the New Age." Represents the promise or expectation of a new era.

GLORIA ROMANORVM --- "Glory of the Romans." Symbolizes the pride and honor of the Roman people.


HERCVLES, HERCVLI, HERCVL --- A great Greek hero credited with spreading civilization, who later became a god. This type was favored by emperors like Trajan, Commodus, and Postumus.

HILARITAS, HILAR --- The personification of cheerfulness and joy. Attributes associated with Hilaritas include the palm branch, cornucopia, scepter, and patera.

HISPANIA --- The personification of the Spanish provinces.

HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS --- "Under this sign, you will be victorious." Refers to Constantine's dream of being led into battle by an angel bearing a cross, resulting in his victory over Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 AD.

HONOS, HONORI --- The personification of honor. (HONOS ET VIRTUS, Honor and virtue.)


III VIR A A A F F --- "Tres Viri Auro Argento Aere Flando Feriundo," which translates to "The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver, and Bronze." This Latin title refers to the Republican and early Imperial board of the three moneyers and is usually accompanied by the names of the moneyers who issued a particular coin.

IMP, IMPERI, IMPERAT, IMPERATOR --- The Emperor or supreme military commander. In Republican times, the title was used to describe successful generals. Starting with Julius Caesar, Roman autocrats adopted the title as a praenomen or official rank. The Senate continued to award the title Imperator as an honorary acclamation following major victories.

INDVLGENTIA --- The personification of tenderness, leniency, or concession. It represents granting kindness or being lenient. Some Romans accorded Indulgentia cult status as a minor deity. (INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH, Indulgence of the emperor to Carthage.)

INVICTA --- "Unconquered," usually in reference to a city or goddess.

INVICTVS, INVICTO, INVICTA --- Invincible or unconquerable. See Sol.

I O M --- A shortened version of IOVI OPTIME MAXIME, which means "Jupiter the best..."

IOVI --- The dative form of Jupiter, used in dedicatory inscriptions. For example, IOVI CVSTOS means "to Jupiter, the protector."

IOVI CONSERVATOR AVG(G) NN --- Jupiter, the conservator of our emperor(s).

IOVI EXSVP --- Jove (Jupiter) who excels in all things.

IOVI PROPVGNATORI --- Jupiter the defender.

IOVI STATORI --- Jupiter the stabilizer.

IOVI VOT SVSC PRO SAL CAES AVG SPQR --- Vows to Jupiter by the Senate and the Roman people for the restoration of the emperor's health.

ISIS --- An Egyptian goddess of the underworld and the wife of Osiris. She represents the birth and death of one year. Attributes associated with Isis include the rattle (sistrum) and bucket.

ITALIA, ITALIAM, ITALICA --- The personification of Italy. Usually depicted as a female figure on a globe, holding a cornucopia and scepter.

IVDAEA --- The personification of Judaea.

IVDAEA DEVICTA --- Judaea conquered.

IVN, IVVENI, IVVENTIS --- Junior or young.

IVNO, IVNONIS, IVNONI, IVNONEM --- Juno, the consort of Jupiter and the patroness.

IVPPITER, IOVIS --- Jupiter, with the genitive form Jovis. Jupiter is the Hellenistic father of the current generation of gods (Zeus) and the god of the skies. Jupiter is often depicted as the protector of the state and the emperor (IOVI CVSTOS). Attributes associated with Jupiter include the thunderbolt, scepter, eagle, small figure of Victory, globe, and he is usually depicted naked or with a cloak across his shoulder. Titles include CVSTOS, CONSERVATOR, PROPVGNATOR, TONANS (Thunder), VICTOR.

IVSTITA --- The personification of justice. Attributes associated with Justita include the olive branch, patera, and scepter.


JANUS --- The Italic deity of time and the ages. While popular on Republican coins, it is rare on Imperial coins. Janus was the first king of Italy and was credited with inventing civilization, which led to his deification.

JANUS, TEMPLE OF --- The temple doors are closed during times of peace.


LABARUM --- A military standard with the Chi-Rho monogram.

LAETITIA --- The personification of joy and good grace. Attributes associated with Laetitia include the wreath, rudder steering globe, and anchor.

LEG --- Legion. (LEG I, LEG II, LEG III - The number of the legions)

LIBER --- The Hellenistic god of wine (Bacchus/Dionysios). Attributes associated with Liber include the wine cup, thyrsos (a staff ornamented with grape leaves), crown of ivy leaves, and panther.

LIBERALITAS, LIBERAL --- The personification of generosity and often indirectly references a specific Imperial donative to the urban population. Attributes associated with Liberalitas include the tessera, cornucopia, or coins flowing from a cornucopia.

LIBERTAS, LIB --- The personification of liberty. This type was often used by usurpers claiming to restore the liberty of the Roman Republic. Attributes associated with Libertas include the pileus (pointed hat) and scepter.

LVDOS --- Games, sport, or entertainment.

LVNA --- An alternative manifestation of the moon goddess, used by Julia Domna and Gallienus. More appropriately, it represents a personification of the moon.

MAGNAE --- great, powerful, extensive.

MAG PIVS --- Great and pious.

MARS, MARTIS --- The god of war, spring and regeneration. MARS (masculine), MARTIS (genative). Attributes: spear, shield, trophy, olive branch, crested helmet. Appears either naked or cloaked with helmet, or fully armored. Titles: CONSERVATOR, PACIFER (holds olive branch), PROPVGNATOR, VICTOR, VLTOR.

Caracalla MARTI

MART PAC, MATI PACIF or PACIFERO --- Mars, the pacifier.(MARTIA CONSERVATORI Mars, the conserver.
MARTI PROPVGT, Mars, the defender.)

MARSUPPIUM --- A bag or pouch to carry valuables or official documents.


MATRI --- Mother, matron. (MATRI MAGNAE = mother of great power).

MAVRETANIA --- The personification of Mauretania ( modern day Morocco and Algeria).

MERCVRY --- The Hellenistic messenger god (Hermes). Attributes: caduceus, petasos (winged cap), marsuppium.

MILITVM, MILIT, MIL --- Foot soldier, military.

MINERVA --- The Roman version of the Hellenistic Pallas Athene. Minerva is common on Domitan coinage, who was a great soldier and general. Attributes: spear (which she usually brandishes), shield, crested helmet, aegis, small figure of Victory, prow. Title: VICTRIX

MODIUS --- A measuring device used for grain. Its depiction on coins implies an abundance of food.

MONETA --- An reflection of Juno as the patroness of money and the mother of muses.

MVLIEBRI --- Feminine, womanly. (FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI = feminine Fortuna).

MVNIFICENTIA --- Generosity.

MVTVVS, MVTVA --- Mutual, or agreed upon.


NAVALIS --- Pertaining to ships. (VICTORY NAVALIS, victory at sea).

NEMESIS --- The avenging goddess or punisher of evil. Often used to signify the suppression of a mutiny. Attributes associated with Nemesis include the caduceus, snake, and wheel.

NEPTVNE --- Neptune, the Hellenistic god of the sea (equivalent to Poseidon). Attributes associated with Neptune include the dolphin, trident, figurehead of a ship's prow, and prow.

NEPTUNE REDUX, NEP RED --- Neptune, the guide back from the sea. This refers to the safe return of an emperor from a sea journey. Attributes associated with Neptune include the trident and acrostolium.

NILVS --- Represents the Nile River. Often depicted as a male figure lying down, with his legs draped and holding a cornucopia and reeds. Sometimes accompanied by a crocodile and/or hippopotamus.

NOBILITAS --- The personification of nobility or aristocracy. Attributes associated with Nobilitas include the palladium and scepter.

NOST, NOSTRORVM --- "Of our people." For example, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM refers to the heir apparent of our people.


OB CIVES SERVATOS, OB C S --- "In return for saving the citizens." Refers to the award of the Corona Civica (see CORONA CIVICA).

OBSEQVENS --- Yielding or compliant. (FORTVNA OBSEQVENS = Fortune compliant.)

OPI --- The personification of power, might, and influence. Usually depicted as a woman holding a scepter with her head resting on her hand.

OPS --- The ancient Italic goddess of abundance and wealth. Attributes associated with Ops include grain stalks and a scepter.

OPTIMO --- Good, honest, brave, noble.

OPTIMO PRINCIPI --- Honest, brave, and noble leader.

ORIENS AVG --- "Rising Sun of the Emperor." Refers to Sol when associated with the sun. It symbolizes rising fortune for the emperor and the Empire.


PACATOR ORBIS --- "Pacifier of the World."

PACE PR UBIQ PARTA IANUM CLUSIT --- "Closed the Janus Gates in return for peace." Indicates a state of peace.

PACE PR TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT --- Refers to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus to symbolize peace on land and sea.

PACI AVGUSTAE --- "To the Peace of the Emperor." Signifies the emperor's personal vision of "Imperial Stability."

PACIFER --- "Bringer of Peace" or "Peacemaker."

PALLADIUM --- The cult image of Minerva (Pallas Athena).

PANNONIAE --- The personification of the province Pannonia. Pannonia was located along the middle Danube basin and included parts of modern-day Yugoslavia. Pannonia produced several emperors in the third century.

PARAZONIUM --- A short sword in its sheath.

PARTHICO --- Pertaining to the Parthians, a country south of the Caspian Sea.

PATERA --- A bowl used for pouring libations.

PATER PATRIAE, P P --- "Father of the Country." This honorary title was granted to most emperors by the Senate. It was considered a highly esteemed title. Some emperors took the title upon succession, while others, like Nero and Hadrian, waited modestly. Tiberius refused the title altogether.

PATIENTIA --- The personification of patience, endurance, and suffering.

PAX --- The personification of peace. Attributes associated with Pax include the olive branch, scepter, cornucopia, and caduceus.


Philip PAX

PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS --- "Firm Peace with the Persians."

PAX ORBIS TERRARVM --- "Peace of the World."

PERP, PERPETVITAS, PERPETVAE, PERPETVVS --- Perpetuity or perpetual. May refer to the life of an emperor (PERP AVG).

PIETAS, PIETATI, PIET --- The personification of devotion to the gods, one's duties, and the emperor. Usually depicted as veiled and sacrificing from a patera over an altar.

PIETAS MVTVA AVG --- "The Mutual Piety of the Two Augusti."

PILEUS --- The conical cap associated with liberty.

PIO --- To appease or propitiate.

PLEBEI --- Refers to the common people or lower class.

PLEBEI VRBANAE FRVMENTO CONSTITVTO --- Refers to a free dole of grain given to each citizen of Rome in 97 A.D. under Nerva.

PONTIF MAXIM --- Pontifex Maximus. The chief of the board of fifteen priests who directed the Roman State religion. Many emperors held this office, and coins frequently refer to it after an emperor's election. Some instruments commonly found on these coins include the apex (conical cap), aspergillum (used to sprinkle water over an altar or victim), lituus (staff), praeferculum (wine vessel), secespita (knife), securis (axe for quartering the victim), and simplum (wine-serving ladle).

POPVL IVSSV --- "By the Order of the Roman People."

POTESTATEM --- The ability to rule with power and force.

PRAETOR, PRAE --- Leader or in front of.

PRAETORIANORVM --- Pertaining to the Praetorian Guard.

PRINCEPS IVVENTUTIS, PRINC IVVENT --- "First Among the Young Men." A title used in the Republican era for the leader of the equestrian portion of the Militia, drawn from the middle class. In the Imperial era, this title was often bestowed by the Equestrian order to imply that the holder belonged to the middle class. It was also given to heirs apparent to the Imperial rank. The reverse side usually depicted the awarded "Princeps Iuventis" on a shield.

PRINCEPS --- Prince. A title used for the emperor in the late Imperial period.

PRINCIPI --- Leader or first man.

PROFECTIO --- Departure. Commemorates the departure of the emperor.

PROPAGO --- Posterity or propagation.



PROVIDENTIA, PROVID, PROVI, PRO --- The personification of foresight. (PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Foresight of the Caesars.) Attributes associated with Providentia include a baton and globe.

PVBLICA, PVBLICAE, PVB --- Belonging to the people. Can also indicate a state official.

PVDICITIA --- The personification of modest virtue or chastity. Often used on the coins of empresses.


QVADRAGENS REMISSA S C: Refers to the remission of customs duty in Gaul and Hispania under Nero, as well as the proscription of Nero's finance officials.

QVADRIGA: A type of chariot drawn by four beasts.

QVIES: Personification of retirement and rest, often depicted standing while holding a branch and scepter.

QVIRITIVM: Citizens of Rome collectively, referring to their peacetime functions.

RAVENNA: Personification of Ravenna, which served as the capital for the Western Roman Empire during the time of Honorius.

RECTOR ORBIS: Restorer of the World, a common epithet used for emperors like Probus and Aurelian.

REDACTAE: To drive back or reduce.

REDUX: Pertaining to coming back or returning.

REDVCI: Leading back or returning.

REGI ARTIS: Refers to the Art of Leadership, associated with Claudius Gothicus.

REGINA: "Queen," often used in the context of IVNO REGINA, which means Queen Juno.

REGNA ADSIGNATA: "The Kingdoms Alloted."

RELIG VETERA H S NOVIES MILL ABOLITA: Refers to the liberality of Hadrian in remitting debts.

REPARATIO REIPVB: Restoration of the Republic.

REQVIES: Rest or retirement from labor.

RESTITVT SAECVIL: Restoration of the spirit age.

RESTITVTAS ORBIS: Restoration of the World.

RESTITVTOR EXERCIT: Restorer of the Army.

RESTITVTOR AFRICAE: Restitutor or ruler of Africa.

RESTITVTOR ORBIS: Restitutor or ruler of the world.

RESTITUTOR VRBIS: Restittutor or ruler of the city (Rome).

RESVRGES: Resurgent, as in ROMA RESVRGES meaning resurgent Rome.

ROM ET AVG: Refers to a cult of Roma and Augustus, predominantly worshipped in the provinces. Often found on the reverse of altar coins from Lugdunum featuring Augustus and Tiberius.

ROMA: Goddess of the city of Rome and personification of Rome. Usually depicted wearing armor and holding a small figure of Victory.


ROMANORVM: "Of the Romans," as in GAVDIVM ROMANORVM, which means Delight of the Romans.

ROMA PERPETVA: Everlasting Rome.

ROMA RENA, ROMA RENASCENS: Revived or renewed Rome.

ROMVLO CONDITORI: "Romulus the founder."

SACERDOS: Priest or priestess, often indicating that the issuer of the coin was a priest of the divine. Also related to the term CONSECRATIO.

SACRA: Sacrifice or to make sacred.

SAEC, SAECVLI, SAECVLO, SAECVLARES: Relates to the passing of a human generation, celebrated with music, dance, and festivals. Emperors such as Augustus, Claudius, Domitian, and Septimius Severus participated in these events. Reverse types may feature sacrifices, sellisternia (feasts), stone pillars (cippi), or later, games involving gladiators and animal sacrifices. FELIC SAEC signifies happiness of the era or age.

SAECVLARES: Refers to the Saecular games, featuring the display and subsequent slaughter of animals. Animals depicted include lions, gazelles, antelopes, stags, goats, and she-wolves.

SAECVLI FELICITAS: The Era of Prosperity.

SAECVLVM FRVGIFERVM: Personification of the fruitful or Golden age.

SALVATOR REIPVLICAE: Savior of the Republic.

SALVS, SALVTARIS, SALVTI: Goddess of health and safety. Typically depicted sacrificing to snakes from a patera. Salus appears on coins after the suppression of a coup against the emperor or during an emperor's recovery from an illness.

SALVS GENERIS HVMANI: Salvation to humankind.

SANCTO: Holy or sacred, as in APOLLONI SANCTO, meaning Holy Apollo.

SAPIENTIA PRINCIPIS: The Wisdom of our Prince.

SARMATIA: Personification of Sarmatia, a region located partly in modern-day Russia and Poland, known for frequent raids on the Roman Empire in the fourth century.

S C: Senatus Consulto, indicating by Senatorial Decree.

SECVRITAS: Personification of freedom from danger, often issued after the suppression of a plot against an emperor or repelling a foreign incursion.

SEGENTIA: Roman goddess associated with the ripening of wheat and crops.

SELLESTERNIVM: Ritualistic feast held to honor the gods and seek their clemency. Often issued after a great disaster, plague, or a significant moment in time.

SENATVS: Senate.

SERVATOS: To guard or protect.

SICILIA: To be silent or not speak about.

SIDERIBVS RECEPTA: "Received by the stars," usually depicted with Diana Lucifera holding a torch. Diana guided the dead to their new home in the heavens and stars.

SOL, SOL INVICTVS: Originally representing the sun (Helios) and later a vague deity status. Aurelian established the Temple of Sol Invictus, using the cult as a spiritual model for the Empire's recovery. Sol's birthday, December 25, became Christmas Day. Attributes include a radiate crown, globe, whip, and nudity with a cloak. Titles: COMES, INVICTVS, ORIENS.

SOLI INVICTO COMITI: "Dedicated to his companion," referring to the unconquered Sol.

SOSPITATORI: To defend or preserve.

SPES: Personification of hope or imminent good, often depicted holding a flower or lifting her robe as she walks.

SPES PVBLICA: Hope of the Public.

SPES REPVBLICAE: Hope of the Republic.

S P Q R: Senatus Populusque Romanus, representing the Senate and the People of Rome. Used to emphasize the authority of Senatorial decrees. Often engraved upon a shield (Honorary Shield of Virtue, CL V, Clupeus Virtutis).

SVBLATA: To take away or remove, or to steal.


TELLVS STABIL: "The stable world." Refers to Tellus, an allegorical figure representing the world or Mother Earth.

TEMP, TEMPORVM: Of the Times. Indicates the prosperity or happiness of the times.


TERRARVM: Of the World.

TESSERA: A cubic tablet mounted on a handle.

TOGA, TOGATE: The Toga, the mantle or outer garment of a Roman citizen. Indicates the Consular rank of the emperor.

TR P, TRI POT: Tribunicia Potestas or Tribunician Powers. Refers to the office of the Peoples' Tribune, granting the power to veto Senatorial Decrees.

TRANQVILLITAS, TRANQ: The personification of tranquillity. Often depicted holding a rudder and grain ears.

TRES GALLIAE: The three regions of Gaul: Aquitania, Lugdunensis, and Narbonensis.

TRIVMFATOR GENTIVM BARB: Triumphant over the barbarian tribes.

TROPAEA: A Roman military trophy made from the arms and armor of a defeated enemy, erected to deter further attacks.

TVTATORI: Guard, defend, or protect against.


VBIQVE: Everywhere, anywhere. "VBIQVE PAX" means peace everywhere.

VENVS, VENERI, VENERIS: The Hellenistic goddess of love and beauty (Aphrodite). Associated with Julius Caesar and the Julian line. Depicted with attributes such as an apple or a small figure of Victory.

VESTA: The goddess of the public hearth (Hestia). Attended by Vestal Virgins who tended to the eternal fire on her altar.

VICTOR: The victor (not the personification of Victory). Refers to the agent of victory, such as MARS VICTOR.

VICTORIA: The Hellenistic goddess of Victory (Nike). Often depicted with a wreath and wings. Associated with other deities like Roma, Jupiter, and Venus.

VICTORIA OTHONIS: Victory of Otho. Minted to pay troops during Otho's campaign against Vitellius.

VICTORIAE LAETE PRINC PERP: Joyful victories of the long-lived princes.

VICTRIX: Conqueror.

VIC PAR - Victory over the Parthians

VIRTVS: The personification of manliness, courage, and virtue. Often depicted in armor.

VIRTVS EXERCITVS: The virtue of the Army.

VLTOR: The Avenger.

VNDIQVE VICTORES: Victory on all fronts.

VOLCANO, VVLCAN: The Hellenistic goddess of iron, fire, and weapons (Hephaistos). Depicted with attributes such as a hammer, tongs, or an anvil.

VOTA, VOTIS, VOTVM: Vows to the Gods. Refers to the Roman custom of offering sacrifices and vows in exchange for favors or wishes granted by the Gods.

VOTA SVSCEPTA: Vows undertaken. Refers to the vows made at the beginning of a ten-year reign.

VOTA SOLVTA: Vows fulfilled. Refers to the sacrifices made in fulfillment of the vows.

VOTA PVBLICA: Vows of the People. Commemorates the joint Consulate of two emperors and the vows made for a prosperous term in office.

VRBANAE: Of the City. Urban.

VRBS: City.

VRBS ROMA BEATA: Blessed city of Rome.



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